current water disinfection solutions problems

Traditional solutions for water treatment

especially in developing countries

 just don’t fit:

Boiling

time-consuming

and not scalable

Chemical-based

(e.g. chlorine) dependent on ongoing supply, affects taste, requires a trained operator. May leave toxic by-products.

Filter-based

Micro/ultra/nano-filtration or Reverse Osmosis - require high energy and high maintenance. The RO requires an expensive infrastructure.

Mercury UV

Effective disinfection, However- have a short lifetime (10X less than LED) ; requires high energy ; toxic disposal.

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